A Guide To Record-Keeping And Expenses For Bookkeepers

International Association of Bookkeepers

Whether your client is new or not to self-employment, record-keeping might sound like hard work to them – and certainly will be to you when they have days to spare for the deadline and cannot find ‘that receipt’. And while that may be true, it does come with its own reward – namely, that sole traders can claim back allowable expenses and pay less tax on their earnings.

HMRC has a number of rules about record-keeping though. Mostly, they relate to the storage of receipts and other documentation after you’ve filed your Self Assessment tax return for that tax year. By not adhering to them, your client can run the risk of losing out on any tax relief – or worse, being penalised by HMRC.

So, to ensure you get the tax-saving benefit of expenses, we’ve asked Mike Parkes from GoSimpleTax to set the record straight on record-keeping and provide guidance on how to help your clients claim.

What expenses can sole traders claim for?

 There’s a whole host of expenses your client can claim as a sole trader, and they can potentially net them big savings if you utilise all that are available to you. Generally, people are aware that equipment purchases qualify as expenses, but there are many others.

They include:

 Travel and accommodation

If your client is a sole trader they may have to cross up and down the country for long stints at a time, basing themselves near a site far from home. Luckily, HMRC considers hotel stays viable expenditure. The accommodation records (how long you’ve booked) should be as close as possible to the proposed timescale of the project you’re there to oversee.

You can also claim tax relief on mileage or travel bookings made over the year, as well as meals on overnight trips. To ensure you stay within the bounds of eligible allowances, it’s worth consulting the gov.uk website.

Legal and financial costs

Your services as a bookkeeper to support their venture, you can claim on their behalf your total costs. This may also be the case for any other professional services they may need for business purposes. Likewise, you can claim against bank costs such as overdraft and credit card charges. Costs like professional indemnity insurance premiums and lease payments can be claimed back, although there are rules if you’re using cash basis accounting.

Marketing costs

As your client is using these services purely for the purpose of driving their business forward, HMRC will permit marketing exercises as eligible expenses. That’s great news for sole traders who use flyers to drum up work, for example, or need a website that advertises their services.

Clothing Expense

While your client operates as a self-employed individual, they may also represent certain authorities when they’re caring for patients or vulnerable people. As a result, it may be expected to purchase a uniform or your own PPE.

Fortunately, you’re able to claim for it as an allowable business expense. Provided that what you’re purchasing is either a uniform or necessary protective clothing needed for your work, you’ll qualify for tax relief.

What’s more, if you need to purchase any additional PPE for your role (say, gloves and face masks), this is also considered an allowable expense.

Rent for premises

If your client rents a space purely for business purposes, then that too can be classed as an allowable expense.

Utilities

If your client works from home, you’re entitled to claim a proportion of the gas, electric, water, broadband and telephone bills as allowable expenses. There’s no exact science to this, but generally you’d divide the bill by the number of rooms in your house and then divide that figure based on the amount of time you work from home. The GOV.UK website has a good example. If that sounds too complex, then you can claim simplified expenses.

Subscriptions

If your clients freelance work requires you to pay a membership fee or would benefit from the purchase of a trade publication, these costs can be claimed back on. However, this does not extend to political party subscriptions.

 These are just some of the examples of expenditure that you can claim on, but they highlight the wealth of opportunities available to all sole traders – provided they keep the relevant records. Claiming these expenses through your clients Self Assessment tax return helps to further reduce their tax liability and maximise their take-home pay.

 

 

IAB members receive a 10% discount – to get your discount code simply sign-up to try our software and the code will be emailed to you.

 

 

 What records should be kept?

In order to qualify for tax relief, your clients need to be able to present receipts when asked by HMRC. But to be wholly compliant, expenses aren’t the only figures you’ll need to report. In fact, if you’re self-employed, you’re legally required to keep records of the following:

  • All sales and income
  • All business expenses
  • VAT records if you’re registered for VAT
  • Records about your personal income
  • Your COVID-19 support grant

You won’t need to submit all of the above as part of the Self Assessment tax return. However, HMRC may ask you for them should they launch an investigation. Additionally, it helps you to work out your clients taxable income when filing.

If HMRC does launch an investigation, you’ll need to provide evidence of your clients finances. This will need to come in the form of:

  • Receipts for goods and stock
  • Bank statements and chequebook stubs
  • Sales invoices, till rolls and bank slips

Only with all of the above will you be able to safely claim any relevant expenses and stay on the right side of the taxman.

 How long should records be kept?

Where businesses have to store receipts for six years, sole traders are only required to store theirs for five. That’s at least five years after the 31st January submission deadline of the relevant tax year.

This allows HMRC to investigate your clients accounts over a long period of time should they believe it necessary. Obviously, if you have claimed relief but misplaced the evidence, you may be penalised by HMRC all the same. So it’s best to tell your clients to invest in more than a wallet or a desk drawer for your receipts. 

Where should records be stored?

Ideally, electronically. Train tickets and similar paper receipts are near impossible to keep in good quality for that length of time – especially if your client is lugging them around for up to five years in their coat pocket. You could have a physical filing system, but the amount of admin that would be required to keep it in order could quickly get exhausting.

Tax software, on the other hand, allows your clients to store certain documentation online. Some allow users to take photos of receipts from their phone, for instance. They can then upload the image to the app, keeping it secure in case you ever find yourself under investigation.

However, it’s worth bearing in mind that there are documents that HMRC will expect you to hold on to in their original form. Such documents usually show that you’ve had tax deducted. For example, if you’ve been an employee in that tax year, your P60 will prove your exemption.

Are you conscious you will not be able to use the government gateway for MTD for income tax?

 GoSimpleTax software submits directly to HMRC and is the solution for bookkeepers and sole traders alike to log all their income and expenses. The software will provide you with hints and tips that could save you money on allowances and expenses you may have missed.

Trial the software today for free – add up to five income and expense transactions per month and see your tax liability in real time at no cost to you. Pay only when you are ready to submit or use other key features such as receipt uploading.

IAB members receive a 10% discount – to get your discount code simply sign-up to try our software above and it will be emailed to you. Volume Discounts are available.

Further more, IAB members who sign up to try the software throughout September and October 2020 will be eligible for a free one to one session providing an insight to our software and answering any questions you may have – sign up now www.gosimpletax.com/tax-iab

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